2.1 Advance understanding of Arctic atmospheric processes and their integrated impact on the surface energy budget.
The surface energy budget represents a critical coupling of the atmosphere to other sub- systems in the Arctic System (e.g., ocean, sea ice, and permafrost). Closing the surface energy budget over different surface cover types would represent a significant improvement in understanding atmospheric drivers of climate change in the Arctic, and the response of the integrated system to external forcers. Individual observing networks currently have inadequate coverage for closing the budget, but expanding measurement capabilities through external collaborations along with better coordination of available information sources can improve characterization, understanding, and modeling of this system.
Performance elements from the Arctic research plan
2.1.1 Support planning, preparation, and implementation for the Multi- disciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), including deployment of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile atmospheric measurement facility and other coupled measurements on the drifting German icebreaker, RV Polarstern.
2.1.2 Improve uniformity and accessibility of surface radiative and heat flux information from satellite retrievals and airborne and ground-based measurements to quantify spatial variability of the surface energy budget over land, ice, and open ocean environments in the Arctic. Augment efforts through IARPC Collaborations to integrate surface radiative and heat flux measurements with cryospheric process understanding and modeling efforts.